Racial Profiling and Terrorism

byRalph H. Holmes


Since the attacks of the World Trade Center towers on September 11th, 2001 the United States government has more openly subjected specific ethnic groups to acts of racial profiling in the name of protecting national security in the war on terrorism. These acts have generated feelings of uneasiness and concern for human rights and civil liberties throughout the country.

Having experienced personal acts of discrimination, I can identify with the power that racial profiling has in affecting a person's everyday life. I teach at an urban African American school, George Westinghouse High School. This high school is located in the Homewood-Brushton community of Pittsburgh, Pa. It has an enrollment of 636 African American students. Sixty percent of the student body is eligible for free lunch and three percent are eligible for reduced lunch. The majority of the students are from single parent households with thirty percent earning less than $15,000.00 per year. The Homewood Brushton community is predominantly African American.

Westinghouse High School is the only all African American high school in the Pittsburgh Public School System. Although it has three programs of "magnet" quality, science and math, business and finance, as well as college-preparatory applied studies, it does not receive the honor usually associated with such distinctions, probably because of its location in the Homewood- Brushton community. It does however enjoy a rich tradition of athletic prowess, being one of the five high schools in the country with over five hundred varsity football victories and more city football championships than any other high school. Its alumni include some of the most celebrated and distinguished graduates in the City of Pittsburgh's history: Erroll Garner, Billy Strayhorn, Chuck Cooper, Maurice Stokes, Dakota Stanton, Ahmad Jamal, Bev Smith, Naomi Sims, Mary Lou Williams, Grover Mitchell and Dr. Helen S. Faison, to name a few.

I have listened to many students recount their personal interactions with law enforcement officers. Their experiences have left many of them with unpleasant and bitter feelings towards the police department. The United States government's war on terrorism has opened up the opportunity for me to create a curriculum unit on racial profiling and terrorism to prepare my students to understand and deal with this new national phenomenon better. My curriculum unit will help students define and document the history of racial profiling in the United States, to debate its effectiveness or lack thereof, to explore its unconstitutional violation of human and civil rights. This curriculum unit will in chronological order describe the discriminatory practices of the United States from slavery, the internment of the Japanese during World War II, the atrocities directed at the civil rights movement, the disproportionate laws of crime and drug sentencing, to today's war on terrorism and racial profiling of specific ethnic groups.

Encounters between law enforcement official and adolescents happen all too often, fueled by racial profiling and teenagers' anti-police attitudes. These engagements can result in volatile experiences. It is my sincere desire to develop a curriculum that will educate students to deal effectively with a variety of situations by first providing them with a history of discriminatory practices, so that they have a more complete understanding of the whole milieu; secondly, by making them more aware of their individual rights under the law and instructing them how to handle themselves properly when they are stopped by the police; and thirdly, by having students debate and discuss strategies to counter racial profiling techniques lawfully and peacefully.

I plan to accomplish this in three lessons that basically explain in more detail the three objectives mentioned above. I see this as a perfect opportunity to take a current event and produce a relevant teaching vehicle that can have far reaching and life-long benefits to my students and perhaps the country as a whole.


"They that can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety." Benjamin Franklin (QuotationsPage.com website).

The practices of racial profiling by police, government agents, and business personnel have generated controversy since the discovery of North America, and those controversies show no signs of abating. Racial profiling refers to law enforcement actions based on race, ethnicity, or national origin rather than on any criminal behavior by an individual. In practice, racial profiling may lead police to stop and inspect selected people passing through public places — drivers on highways, pedestrians in urban areas, visitors crossing national borders, passengers on airplanes — for the reason that these people fit a statistical profile based at least to some extent on group membership (Pampel, 2004, 3).

Racial profiling has existed in one form or another since the discovery of the

United States and shows no signs of disappearing. From the early pioneers to the present day, government and law officials' racial profiling has taken on many forms. The more recent displays occurred after the events of September 11th, 2001. The newest examples relate more to national origin and ethnicity than race. In their efforts to prevent terrorism, government agents and airline personnel have given special attention to young men who appear to be Middle Eastern or Islamic (Pampel, 2004, 4).

The term racial profiling was adopted when police officers stopped black motorists for minor traffic violations in hopes of discovering illegal drugs or weapons in the car (thus the phrase, "driving while black"). One authority writes: "Racial profiling is defined as any police-initiated action that relies on race, ethnicity, or national origin rather than the behavior of an individual or information that leads police to a particular individual who has been identified as being or having engaged in criminal activity." (Pampel, 2004, 5). In practice, the term "racial profiling" is often used to refer to all forms of racial, ethnic, and national-origin discrimination.

This type of behavior is unconstitutional according to the Fourth Amendment, ratified in 1791, which states, "The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated." Racial profiling violates this amendment because it results in stops and searches that have no reasonable basis. Because this practice treats some race, ethnic, and national-origin groups differently than others, it appears to violate the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment as well.

The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled in a 1975 decision, United States v. Brignoni-

Ponce (422 U.S. 873), that the use of ethnicity as the sole reason for making a stop violates constitutional protections. Ethnic appearance alone does not meet the standard for reasonable search and seizure. However, the Court has not ruled that use of race, ethnicity, and national origin as parts of a larger profile violates constitutional rights. It has not explicitly ruled in favor of this type of racial profiling either. Still, a variety of related decisions suggest that the Court would support this procedure if there is evidence of an association between race, ethnicity, or national origin and offending behavior (Pampel, 2004, 8) Although many states have tried to eliminate racial profiling, federal legislation has not yet deemed a law passed to do so.


Teaching health education at an urban African American high school has afforded

me the opportunity to witness and listen to first-hand accounts of acts of racial profiling by my students and members of the community. This curriculum unit is designed for students in grades 9-12 taking courses of Health I and II. Teaching in a predominantly African American community, I have found that my students have experienced racial profiling by the city police department on a regular basis. It is my intent to educate them to the practices of racial profiling in the United States.

I have included lessons in the past on how students should conduct themselves

when stopped by the police in the hope of preventing being harassed and arrested.

Past lessons have consisted of reading and discussing proper protocol as described on the "bust card" dialogue instructing citizens how to respond in a non-threatening and

polite manner when questioned by law enforcement personnel.

To help students to be better prepared when they are stopped and/or questioned by the police, we have engaged in several role-playing scenarios during class over the years. Many of the students complain about their episodes with police harassment. After some discussions it was transparently clear that they did not know how to conduct themselves under certain circumstances. In an effort to equip them with the necessary skills to manage these experiences properly without causing additional problems for themselves, we practice the recommendations suggested by the New York Civil Liberties Union (NYCLU, "Protecting Protest" website). These role-playing exercises proved to be quite helpful in giving the students confidence in responding to law enforcement officers' questions. I had a personal feeling that they would be more comfortable in the future when confronted by law enforcement officials. I found some significant suggestions on this web site concerning how to conduct yourself when questioned by police officials. They are:

Stay calm and in control of your words, body language and emotions.

Don't get into an argument with the police.

Never bad-mouth a police officer.

Remember, anything you say or do can be held against you.

Keep your hands where the police can see them.

Don't run.

Don't touch the police officer.

Don't resist even if you are innocent.

Don't complain at the scene or tell police they're wrong.

Do not make any statements regarding the incident.

Ask for a lawyer immediately if you are arrested.

Remember the officer's badge and patrol car numbers.

Write down everything you remember ASAP.

Try to find witnesses and their names and phone numbers.

If you are injured, take photos and get medical attention, obtaining medical records.

Also if you are stopped for questions, remember the following points: Police may stop and detain you only if they have a reasonable suspicion that you have committed, are committing or are about to commit a crime. You can ask if you are under arrest or free to leave. If you are arrested, you have a right to know why. Police can't lawfully require that you identify yourself or produce identification if they don't reasonably suspect you are involved in a crime. But use your judgment- refusal could in reality lead to your arrest even if it's unjustified.

"Blanket" searches of all bags at political demonstrations are generally impermissible. Nonetheless, during meetings like a presidential nominating convention, the police may seek to do blanket searches in response to a potential threat to public safety. If you are stopped and do not wish to have your bag searched when entering a demonstration, you should be allowed to leave the area. If police reasonably suspect you pose a danger to them or others, they may conduct a frisk and "pat down" your outer clothing. Don't physically resist, but make it clear that you don't consent to any further search. Don't bad-mouth a police officer or run away, even if you believe what is happening is unreasonable. That could lead to your arrest.
Also if you're arrested: You have the right to remain silent and to talk to a lawyer before you talk to the police. You shouldn't tell the police anything except your name and address and you shouldn't give any explanations, excuses or stories. You can make your defense later, in court, based on what you and your lawyer decides is best.
If you have a lawyer, ask to see your lawyer immediately. If you can't afford a lawyer, you have the right to a free one once your case goes to court. You can ask the police how a lawyer can be contacted. Don't say anything without a lawyer. Within a reasonable time after your arrest, or booking, you should ask the police to contact a family member or friend. If you are permitted to make a phone call, anything you say at the precinct may be recorded or listen to. Be very careful. Never talk about the facts of your case over the telephone. Do not make any decisions in your case until you have talked with a lawyer (NYCLU, "Protecting Protest" website).

The unit will address several of the Content Standards for the Pittsburgh Public Schools. Specifically, the unit will fulfill the following standards focusing on Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening:

    #5) all students analyze and make critical judgments about all forms of communication, separating fact from opinion, recognizing propaganda, stereotypes and statements of bias, recognizing inconsistencies and judging the validity of evidence;

    #6) all students exchange information orally, including understanding and giving spoken instructions, asking and answering questions appropriately, and prompting effective group communication.

It will also assist students in meeting these Citizenship standards:

    #3) all students describe the development and operations of economic, political, legal and governmental systems in the United States, assess their own relationships to those systems, and compare them to those in other nations;

    #4) all students examine and evaluate problems facing citizens in their communities, state, nation and world by incorporating concepts and methods of inquiry of the various social sciences;

    #5) all students develop and defend a position on current issues, confronting the United States and other nations, conducting research, analyzing alternatives, organizing evidence and arguments, and making oral presentations; and

    #9) all students demonstrate an understanding of the history and nature of prejudice and relate their knowledge to current issues facing communities, the United States and other nations (Pittsburgh Teachers Institute Handbook, 2005, pp.25, 27).

Objectives and Strategies

The teacher's personal professional objectives for the unit are to define, document and analyze the history of racial profiling in the United States. This will be accomplished 1) by a brief chronological history of racial profiling through a sampling of vignettes including genocide of the Native Americans, the enslavement of African Americans, the internment of Japanese during World War II, the atrocities of the civil rights movement, driving while black, disproportionate crime and war on drug sentencing, and "flying while Arab" during the current war on terrorism; 2) by student debates over the legality of racial profiling, and by examining examples of the unconstitutional violation of the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendments and other litigated court cases; 3) by discussing the effectiveness of racial profiling and reviewing the legal exercises undertaken to eliminate its practice in the United States.

The student objectives are for all students to be able to: 1) gain and understand a more complete history of racial profiling in the United States; 2) debate the pros and cons of racial profiling; 3) conduct themselves in an appropriate manner when stopped by the police. These student objectives will be accomplished in part by having students research and writes an essay of three to six pages on racial profiling in the United States that seeks to develop a plan to eliminate its abuses.

Classroom Activities

Lesson One

The curriculum unit on racial profiling will consist of three lesson plans, with each

one lasting three to five days depending on student progress.

Anticipatory Set

The introduction to the unit will begin with a choreographed enactment of a typical racial profile incident by a white Pittsburgh Public School police officer and me (an African American teacher) in my classroom.

I will have a white police officer come to the classroom and play out a scene as if he was investigating an incident with a parent's complaint against me.

For example, he may come in and ask if Mr. Holmes is in here {1}.

I introduce myself as Dr. Holmes and tell him when I will be available for his concerns and to leave his information in the office. The officer states, "Mr. Holmes, I do not have the time to do this." {2}

I tell him that is the only time I will be available due to my teaching responsibilities. I continue to teach my class and the officer stands at the door. {3}

I continue to teach and he says, "Hey, I want to ask you one more thing."{4}

I go over to the door and he asks for directions to another room. I begin to tell him and he says, "Do you think those kids are learning anything?"{5}

This is a simple scenario to give you an idea about this lesson. The numbers indicate profiling through belittlement {1}, disrespect or lack of acknowledgement of what I had to say as a professional with a doctorate {2}, and disregard for my duties {3, 4}and for my students {5}.

I will open this up for a class discussion, soliciting comments from the students about how they felt during the scenario. I will ask how the students would have felt if they were in my position and ask them to give examples of how they would have responded. Then we will discuss what would be a positive way in handling this, looking at the way I handled this as a model.

Lesson Objective: To define and document the history of racial profiling in the United States.

Desired Outcome: Each student will gain an understanding of what racial profiling is and each will be able to cite examples of historical incidents of its occurrence.


The teacher will define racial profiling and give a brief description of its

occurrence in chronological order. A classroom discussion will follow each description, with students giving examples of their knowledge or experiences.

Chronological History of Racial Profiling.

This section of the unit will document some of the major acts of racial profiling against specific ethic groups throughout the history of the United States. Racial profiling along with racial discrimination has a storied and long history in the United States. It dates back to the discovery of America involving the genocide of Native Americans, the people that have probably endured more inhumane acts of cruelty than any ethnic group in the United States. They were killed and literally robbed of their land and imprisoned on Indian Reservations. Many to this day have engaged in legal battles to regain possession of their stolen land. Though all Native Americans are now U.S. citizens, in practice many tribal members still feel imprisoned on Indian Reservations.

The only other group that can claim equal or harsher treatment than Native

Americans is the African Americans. They are the only group that was captured and imported here for the explicit purpose of forced free labor. "During slavery, a slave could not leave a plantation without a pass, and whites had the authority, even the obligation to stop blacks and apprehend any who were unable to give a satisfactory account of himself." Under the code, whites could use skin color to detain and question without probable cause or evidence of a crime (Pampel, 2004, 10). Law enforcement officers have engaged in this practice since early American society when court officials permitted constables and ordinary citizens the right to "take up" all black persons seen "gadding abroad" without their master's permission (Meeks, 2000, 5).

The internment of Japanese Americans after the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1942, supposedly done in the interest of preserving the safety and security of the nation, was in direct conflict with American democratic ideals of racial equality (Siggins, 2005, 2). This proved to be one of the great injustices of World War II. The United States incarcerated over 100,000 legal Japanese and Japanese American citizens, not because of individualized determinations that they posed a threat to nation security or the war effort, but solely for their Japanese ancestry (Cole and Dempsey, 2002, 150).

The internment of Japanese Americans in 1942 was an egregious example of what can happen when skin color and national origin are substituted for evidence and become, by themselves, a basis for suspicion and punishment. During the time of the internment, Jim Crow Laws and formal racial segregation existed in the American South and were so reified that virtually no one could imagine them ending. A nation that had long ago learned to tolerate and accept Jim Crow Laws that victimized African Americans was well prepared to accept internment that victimized Japanese Americans (Meeks, 2000, xi-xii).

No other person has done more to champion the cause of the civil rights movement than Nobel Peace Prize honoree, Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. It was largely because of him that African Americans enjoy much of the freedom derived from the civil rights protests of the late 50's and early 60's. The riots in major cities like Harlem, Watts and Detroit stemmed from problems of poverty, social isolation, economic stress and cultural differences that persisted despite the ending of the Jim Crow laws. Police became the first line of defense in dealing with the resentment and violence that resulted from these problems. Continued inequality and de facto segregation today make racial conflict a crucial component of concerns over racial profiling (Pampel, 2004, 11).

Whether or not you believe that racial profiling actually exists, the practice has been proven over and over again. The attorney general's office of New Jersey, the state whose practices sparked national attention on the subject, coining the term "driving while black," acknowledged that racial profiling did exist among its highway state troopers (Meeks, 2000, 5). The latest edition of Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary includes an entry for the term. It defines racial profiling as "the mass police policy of stopping and searching vehicles driven by people of particular races" (Meeks, 2000, 5). In Bob Dylan's song "Hurricane", boxer Rubin "Hurricane" Carter is pulled over in Paterson N.J., because he is black, and the police later frame him for an unsolved murder. The act of stopping a minority motorist who is driving luxury car on the assumption that he is a criminal is another violation of the Fourth Amendment to the Constitution — "The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizure, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or Affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized." Law enforcement officers use a profile known as CARD, an acronym for class, age, race, and dress (Meeks, 2000, 9). Law enforcement officials use the particular dress habits of young urban African Americans as identifying symbols to stop and follow individuals as suspected criminals. Unfortunately, these markers describe a hundred thousand young people on any given day in any given city. And as more and more young white people adapt the dress and style of today's inner city black kids, they, too, become a small minority who are sometimes victims of racial profiling. (Meeks, 2000, 9).

As the result of a large number of complaints in several states that promoted racial profiling, allegedly to aid in the war on drugs, including New Mexico, Maryland and New Jersey, the New Jersey Attorney General's office initiated an investigation into the allegation that its state troopers engaged in the practice (Meeks, 2000, 29). The Attorney General and the Governor of New Jersey condemned the practice of racial profiling and publicly promised that any officer that violated the civil rights of minority motorist would be indicted. These developments set a national precedent (Meeks, 2000, 32).

Along this time, the emergence of the crack cocaine epidemic resulted in the unfair sentencing of minorities receiving severe penalties for selling crack cocaine. For example, possession of only five grams of crack, compared to 500 grams of powdered cocaine, triggered the same mandatory minimum sentence of five years (Pampel, 2004, 13). This law was directed toward certain ethnic groups, mainly Hispanics and African Americans. Government authorities believed these groups to be extensively involved in the drug trade. Critics proclaimed that the war on drug promoted racial profiling and violated the civil rights of these ethnic groups.

The strikes on the two World trade Center buildings and the Pentagon after the hijacking of four planes by Muslim Arab men soon resulted in the passing of the Patriot Act (officially the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act). It gives sweeping anti-privacy powers to domestic law enforcement and international intelligence agencies and eliminates checks and balances that previously gave courts the opportunity to ensure that those powers were not abused. The PATRIOT Act and follow-up legislation now in development threaten the basic rights of millions of American ("The USA PATRIOT ACT," EFF website).

Numerous forms of law enforcement have been put in place to aid American government officials and police to single out Arab American people in hopes of detecting a terrorist before he or she can commit a terrorist attack ("Racial Profiling" website). Because the USA Patriot Act "essentially legalizes spying to combat terrorism," a new chapter of racial oppression in the history of the U.S.A. has started. The racial profiling against people of Arabic descent in America has unleashed and assisted in the spreading of a purely race-based fear of and hatred towards Arab Americans (Haddad, 2002).By couching group-based profiling as necessary to homeland security, the government has traded the principles of universal equality and individual dignity for the presumption of safety (Lee, 2004, 1).

Past experience indicates that in general, racial profiling is not only humiliating and contrary to core American values; it is also ineffective as a law enforcement tactic. Too many people are stopped who have nothing to do with any sort of crime, while many who are involved in crime are overlooked by overworked police and security forces. And the consequences of racial profiling are severe. Profiling harms innocent people, skews the U.S. prison population toward non-whites, alienates minority communities, and contributes to a crisis of confidence in the criminal justice system. Just as African American, Hispanics and other minorities have been targeted by police officers investigating street crimes and immigration violations, federal agents have targeted Arabs, Muslins and in some cases those who only appear to be Arab or Muslim as part of their anti-terrorism campaign, despite the absence of particularized suspicion (Civil Rights.org. website).

Lesson 2

One of the most debated topics in the world today is that of racial profiling, especially since the events of September11, 2001. In the name of national security, world-wide racial profiling has emerged as the debate of the millennium. It has taken on a life of its own that has surpassed what seems like the ancient history of stopping minority motorists, illegal searches, and other earlier forms of profiling.

The war on terrorism has created a monster that threatens everyone. Can any country lawfully justify the practice of racial profiling without incriminating itself for crimes against humanity? As suggested above, one of the main questions that still needs to be addressed in the debate over racial profiling is, "how effective is racial profiling at actually detecting criminal activity?" Other key questions: "Is it legal to single out a person solely because of his race? What effect does racial profiling of one group have, if any, on other races? Is the cost of racial profiling worth it all? Does it violate the Constitution, especially the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendments?" These are just a few of the many questions that should be addressed in the great debate on racial profiling in the war on terrorism.

Students will debate the legality of racial profiling in the following manner. Students will select to debate either in defense of or in opposition to racial profiling. They will spend a week in the library gathering information from books and articles on the Internet to support their viewpoints. Each student will have five minutes to present his or her statements in support of or against the practices of racial profiling during class. Students can familiarize themselves with the debates on racial profiling by researching the opinions of liberals and conservatives, Democrats and Republicans, and the reported disadvantages and advantages of racial profiling.

Research on Internet

Popular and general search engines such as Google (http://www.goole.com),

Yahoo! (https: www.yahoo.com), AltaVista (http://www.altavista.com)

Excite (http://ww.xcite.com), Hotbot (http://www.hotbot.com) Lycos (hppt://w.lycos.com), and many others can identify web sites that contain information on racial profiling (Pampel, 2004, 139).

Court Cases

There are a number of court decisions that address the issue of racial profiling. Information on the suits, jury decisions, awards, appeals and final judgments can be found through searches of newspapers (e.g., the New York Times), Web sites (The Date Collection Resource Center at Northeastern University, the American Civil Liberties Union) and general search engines (Goggle, Yahoo!) (Pampel, 2004,141).

Lesson 3

Students will write a research paper supporting their viewpoint from the debates over racial profiling, in favor or against the practice. They will use the information

gathered in their research as a point of reference. Students will have use of the computer laboratory for one week to complete this assignment. I will monitor and assist as needed.

Annotated Bibliography

Resources for Teachers

MacDonald, Heather. Are Cops Racist? Chicago: Ivan R. Dec, 2003.

Are Cops Racist discusses the myths of racial profiling by giving cases histories of high profile incidents. It tells how to train policeman and identifies America's best urban police force.

Malkin, Michelle. In Defense of Internment: The Case for "Racial Profiling" in World War II and the War on Terror. Washington, D.C.

Malkin's controversial book defends the evacuation and relocation of ethnic Japanese, as well as the internment of enemy aliens, Japanese and non-Japanese alike, during World War II.

Meeks, Kenneth. Driving While Black: highways, shopping malls, taxicabs, and sidewalks: how to fight back if you are a victim of racial profiling. New York; Broadway Books, 2000.

Driving While Black clearly defines the system officially known as CARD (class, age, race, dress) and offers advice about how to handle potentially life-threatening situations with the police, as well as resources for readers who suspect their civil rights have been denied due to racial profiling.

Pampel, Fred C. Library in a book: Racial Profiling. New York: Facts on File, 2004.

Racial Profiling explores the highly charged controversies this issue involves and provides an overview, reference resource, and research guide that will interest students, teachers, librarians, activists, policy makers, participants in the criminal justice system, and members of the public interested in issues of race and crime.

Resources for Students

Meeks, Kenneth. Driving While Black: highways, shopping malls, taxicabs, and sidewalks: how to fight back if you are a victim of racial profiling. New York; Broadway Books, 2000.

This source is especially good for students seeking to learn how to behave properly when stopped by the police.

Pampel, Fred C. Library in a book: Racial Profiling. New York: Facts on File, 2004.

This is a good general source for students researching papers.

In addition, both students and teachers can benefit from the following Internet sources:

Internet Articles

Civil Rights.org. 2002. "Wrong Then Wrong Now: Racial Profiling Before & After

September 11, 2001." Available from http://www.civilrights.org. Accessed May 3, 2005).

A civil rights group puts contemporary racial profiling in historical perspective.

Cole, David and James X. Dempsey, 2002. Terrorism and the Constitution: Sacrificing Civil Liberties in the name of National Security. [online edition]. Available from http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com. Accessed on May 3, 2005.

Two leading legal authorities on civil liberties analyze threats in legislation from the 1990s to the present.

Haddad, William J. 2002. "Impact of the September 11th Attacks on the Freedoms of Muslims and Arabs." Available from http://www.arabbar.org/art-sept11impact.asp. Accessed on August 20, 2005.

A speech by a leader of the Arab-American bar in Illinois detailing how racial and ethnic profiling of Arabs and Muslims has risen since September 11th.

Lee, Chisum 2004. "The Spread of Racial Profiling Since 9-11 Civil Rights Rollback." Available from: http://www.catholicsocialjustice.org, Accessed on May 3, 2005.

A Catholic social justice perspective on racial profiling today.

NYCLU (New York Civil Liberties Union). "Protecting Protest." Available from http:// www.Nrcprotestrights.org/rights-bust.html. Accessed on August 8th, 2005.

Guidelines prepared for protestors at the 2004 Republican National Convention that are useful for all encounters with police.

QuotationsPage.com. Available from http://www.QuotationsPage.com/quote/138.html. Accessed on July 7, 2005.

A site where notable quotes can be found.

Siggins, Peter. 2002. "Racial Profiling in an Age of Terrorism." Available from http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/ethicalperspectives/profiling.html. Accessed on May 3, 2005.


A useful analysis of recent racial profiling practices.

"The USA PATRIOT Act," EFF (Electronic Frontier Foundation). Available from http://www.eff.org/Privacy/Surveillance/Terrorism/20020925_patriot_act.html. Accessed on May 4, 2005.


The full text of the USA Patriot Act.

Appendix A

This is a student self-check on how they handle their own racial profiling. This information will be included in there research paper. The following questions will be addressed:

  1. What nationalities make you feel comfortable or comfortable and why?
  2. Do you think that you are racially profiled and why?
  3. How could you as a victim or not a victim help with the profiling problem?

(table available in print form)

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