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As a teacher of American History, it is exasperating to pick up textbooks that dedicate no more than a few sections to the indigenous cultures of this land. The limited study of Native cultures and lack of representation in American History textbooks inadvertently foster the assumption that indigenous cultures of North America are unimportant or extinct. It is troubling to imagine that this kind of irresponsible teaching and reporting breeds countless misconceptions, ignorance and cultural insensitivity. In recent years, books published by historians like Howard Zinn, Ronald Takaki and James Loewen provide resources because these historians challenge the traditional narrative and seek to stray away from Eurocentric views of US history. At the same time, I am aware that old habits die hard for some Social Studies curriculums and teachers, even for those intend to teach historically accurately and truthful content.
To kick off our study of our country, last school year I displayed an interactive map and timeline of American Indian tribes dating back to 1784.1 I instructed my students to note what happens as I moved the cursor, in ten year increments, from 1784 to the present day. They were to record their observations and their wonderings. The goal was to engage students and make them aware of the indigenous cultures of this land and lead them to ask some major questions. As I anticipated, they were baffled by the map as they witnessed the Native populations plummet from 1790 to the present day. They wondered what happened to all of those people. Did they leave? Were they killed? If so, who killed them? Why? How? As we explored topics throughout the year regarding indigenous cultures, European exploration, and the Trail of Tears, we came back to those questions and wonderings they developed during the first week of school. While my intention was to make students aware of some of the tragic events that occurred to the Native populations of this land, I did not realize, until doing this research, that I, too, may have been subliminally sending the message that American Indian populations are nonexistent today. I’ll be honest in saying that my knowledge of contemporary American Indian was limited. Though I showed my students the interactive map, I failed to notice and emphasize that there were existing Native populations in our neighboring states of Wisconsin and Michigan. After researching, I became increasingly intrigued and inspired by the Menominee stories of triumph and resilience in Wisconsin.
It has been estimated that millions of American Indians have been killed from the colonization period to current day due to displacement, disease and other tragic events. In contrast, the Menominee tribe has developed a strong voice against political disenfranchisement which led them to withstand survive the effects of termination, and remain in the over six million American Indians that populate the United States today.2
My seventh grade US History students live on Chicago’s Southwest side; our school is just over 60% Latino and nearly 40% African American with 98% of students coming from low income families. As a result of Chicago’s alarming rates of gun violence, my students are commonly robbed of simple childhood pleasures like going outside to play. For the safety of their children, many parents forbid their children from going outside. A number of factors contribute to Chicago Public School’s graduation rate that currently trails behind the national average by 17%3.
These realities and statistics, though seemingly bleak and harsh, do not stop dedicated teachers and administrators across the city from trying to create change and hopeful futures for our students; our school is no different. In fact, these harsh realities are what motivates the staff at our school to create an environment that fosters critical thinking, high expectations and a safe space for our kids to be kids. In the past, our school experienced years of consistently failing to meet federal and state mandates for academic achievement; as a result, our school became a turnaround school which has means that it was taken over by the Academy of Urban School Leadership to receive intensive support for the past five years. Due to the efforts of school community, we have strived to increase rigor and academic growth and completely changed the school dynamic and environment so that students are held to high expectations, and come in everyday prepared to learn.
I am confident that my students will be particularly interested in this unit. Thinking about past assignments and activities that garnered the highest levels of student engagement and learning were putting Christopher Columbus on trial for the death of the Taino people4, class readings and discussion about race as a social construct rooted in Howard Zinn’s A Young People’s History of the United States and any topics where people were treated inhumanely really led students to deeply and actively engage with the content and think critically. Like most people, my students love historical scandal and debate, especially when it relates to any instances of federal mismanagement and wrongdoing. Furthermore, they enjoy reading first-hand accounts of people and groups that are resilient, resistant and able to overcome their circumstances, which is important for inner city youth in a city and school district plagued by low funding, failing schools and gun violence. My students need stories of hope. They need to see that the underdog can come out on top. They need to encounter empowering text about people that got tired of being pushed around and did something to evoke lasting change. Thus, through multiple sources of media and text, I intend for this unit to answer the following essential question: How were the Menominee able to achieve tribal sovereignty?
In Illinois, the Common Core standards govern the way in which students access and interact with both informational and literary text. Even though I am a Social Studies teacher, I infuse Common Core informational text standards within the classroom. To compliment the unit, I will focus on the standards regarding citing textual evidence, central idea, and identifying the author’s purpose and point of view in a text. The common core Reading Informational (RI) text standards that correspond to this unit are as follows: RI 7.1 Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. RI 7.2 Determine two or more central ideas in a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, RI 7.6 Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author distinguishes his or her position from that of others.
The strategies that will be employed during this unit are designed to lead students to research and analyze the Menominee tribe of Wisconsin so that they may answer the Essential Question. Through engagement with multiple primary and secondary sources, students will be able to construct sound claims that express how the Menominee tribe was able to achieve tribal sovereignty and self-determination. The goal is to offer a thorough, well rounded view of Menominee history and resistance. In addition, students will be able to explain major concepts of allotment and tribal sovereignty.
Government Policies and Native Relations in the 20th and 21st Century
In its first century, this young country, newly emancipated from the British throne, developed ideas of how to govern its land and hoped that the opportunity to expand would soon be realized. In order to expand, the government needed to determine how it would acquire land from the indigenous populations that inhabited most of North America. Throughout history, Congressional decisions as it relates to how the United States viewed and interacted with the Natives seemed to vacillate back and forth. Initially, tribes were seen as sovereign entities. This notion was obstructed when tribal lands, along with the resources they could yield, began to interest the government. As a result, the government developed new policies and eventually the Bureau of Indian Affairs to attempt to manage the indigenous populations of North America.
One of the first policies to be enacted was the removal policies of the 1830s and the creation of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. The Bureau’s main role at its start was to help oversee the daily functions of the tribe and provide support. However, the Bureau’s relations with Natives was contentious so much that Charles Wilkinson refers to the Bureau as a “master”.5 Removal policies were rooted in the United States government efforts to expand and create additional settlements. Still to acquire these lands, the government relied on coercion and bribery as they manipulated Native Americans to move to more remote parts of the continent.6
Following the Removal policy, the General Allotment Act of 1887, or the Dawes Act, was implemented. The goal of the Dawes Act was to assimilate Native populations into the fabric of United States culture. Congressional members felt this could be best achieved by converting Native Americans into roles as farmers. For the United States, this policy would prove to be a victory as the country’s land expanded by 86,000,000 acres. At the same time, the efforts to turn Native groups into farmers proved to be unsuccessful. To further the goals of assimilating American Indians into United States society, the Indian Citizenship Act was passed in 1924. This was an effort to give American Indians access to the American dream, but for many Natives, it resulted in a dramatic loss of their language, religion and family structure, plus removal from their homelands. 7
After viewing the devastation and poverty on reservations that resulted from the aforementioned Congressional decisions, the United States government perceived that Natives needed more unwarranted assistance. Somehow, legislators missed that the devastation Natives experienced and the vast lack of resources, both economic and agricultural, directly correlated to the ineffective policies inflicted on Native cultures by Congressional decisions. Instead, many government officials rationalized that the reason for the mass devastation on tribal lands were because Native groups relied on special privileges and assistance from the government which caused tribes to be too dependent and unable to sustain themselves. Thus, in an effort to once again improve the situation of Native cultures, talks of termination became prevalent amongst Congressional groups in the 1940s with Senator Arthur Wilkes of Utah as the main proponent. The goal of termination was to eliminate reservations, free Natives from federal supervision, limitations and disabilities.8 Congress insisted that the federal government should no longer assist in the daily operations of tribal life. Instead, these responsibilities would be handed over to the states,9 which in many cases opened the door for confusion and injustices for tribal members. As with other government policies, termination resulted in over one million acres of land confiscated from Native tribes. Ultimately, this policy adversely effected 109 tribes and 11,000 individuals. The first tribe that the federal government used to experiment with this policy was the Menominee tribe of Wisconsin, which turned into a unique story of resilience and resistance.
History of the Menominee Tribe
The Menominee tribe is considered the oldest continuous residents of Wisconsin.10 The tribe settled on their current reservation after their Treaty of 1854 secured their lands in this region. The Menominee’s aboriginal land was over ten million acres, but after four treaties and multiple laws that effected Native peoples, the tribe lost a great deal of land. Today, the reservation spans still over 230,000 acres. The heavily forested area is surrounded by natural resources of timber, lumber, and rivers that they utilize for hunting, fishing and wild rice. The Menominee’s rich history and legacy of self-sufficiency caused the government to see them as the ideal candidates to the Termination Act of 1954. Though termination caused devastating effects, the Menominee tribe was able to collectively exercise their rights to end termination, achieve restoration and reestablish themselves as a sovereign nation.
The way of life of the Menominee people is admirable in many ways. They cultivated a strong sense of community and established an equally strong political voice. The tribe flourishes on its homeland by upholding values of a sustainable lifestyle, priding themselves on only taking enough when utilizing their natural resources.11 They illustrate communal values and compassion by sharing resources with neighboring tribes when necessary. As it relates to making major decisions for the tribe, especially concerning the United States government, Menominee leaders are dedicated to neglecting selfish ambitions in an effort to operate in the best interest of the tribe. Thus, major decisions that affect the entire tribe are decided as a community. 12 These practices are major factors that aided the Menominee in cultivating strong tribal leaders that kept the tribe’s legacy, longevity and well-being top priorities at all times.
When the United States government enacted the Allotment Act, the Menominee tribe was not affected because they were viewed as self-sufficient. The Menominee established a logging mill which created many jobs for the tribe, though most of the employees were non Tribal members. In some instances, the number of workers exceeded the number of actual jobs, but the Menominee were more concerned with tribal members being employed than they were about an efficient business model or profit. Similarly, the tribe owned and operated three nonprofit power plants which provided free electricity for all tribal members.13 They outlasted contention and multiple governmental policy changes because they knew how to navigate the political system. The Menominee people have developed a long standing legacy of petitioning Congress that dates back to the mid-nineteenth century. Often times, the tribe sent representatives directly to Washington, DC to lobby Congressional leaders.14 While some efforts were more successful than others, the tribe consistently strived to build connections and relationships with legislators in an effort to best serve the interest of the tribe.15 At the same rate, they were not resistant to suing and accusing the government of any wrongdoing anytime legislative acts threatened to interrupt or reduce their quality of life. 16 In fact, the passing of the Indian Reorganization Act provided the tribe the right to view past financial decisions the Bureau of Indian Affairs made on behalf of the tribe. The tribe sued the Bureau for mismanaging their tribal funds accumulated from their lumber industries in 1934, and in 195117 the tribe was awarded 8.5 million dollars.18 Historian, Patty Loew, argues that this settlement was the catalyst for the government to enforce termination on the Menominee tribe.19
The Menominee were seen as prime candidates for termination for a number of reasons. Unlike most tribes, Menominee land was not affected by the Allotment Act. When the Termination policy was enacted, the tribe only relied on the federal funding to handle costs for a school that only a quarter of the children in their population attended. To make its case, the government considered that the tribe had over 10,000,000 dollars in its treasury, and financially supported two schools, a Catholic hospital, a lumber mill and a nonprofit utility company. In addition, the tribe paid for the Bureau of Indian Affairs positions that served the tribe.20 Some interpreted the policy to mean that tribes were still entitled to the rights established in their treaties and their positions as sovereign entities, though others, like Utah Senator Arthur Watkins, saw it as the tribal members being emancipated from reservation life and another effort to assimilate tribal members. Some government officials saw the way of life of Menominee to reflect communistic ideals.
In 1954, Senator Watkins visited the tribe located five hours north of Chicago to discuss the termination policy. He was required to take a vote on the termination policy before it could take effect. The results showed that the tribe overwhelmingly voted in support of termination. At the same time, however, only six percent of tribal members were present at this meeting. Many Menominee people disputed reports that they favored termination and claimed that tribal members present did not understand the verbiage and potential outcomes of this complicated plan. Within five days of Watkins’ visit, the tribe reassembled and deeply unpacked the terms of this policy. Once the tribe gained a better understanding of the terms of the Termination Act, they expressed their discontent and lack of support for the policy, but considering that the Senate strongly supported termination policies during this time, the termination policy passed.21 Even though the tribe did not initiate this plan and overwhelmingly opposed the policy, they were responsible for paying for expensive legal counsel to create a termination plan.
Originally, termination was set to happen in 1954, yet the Menominee successfully postponed implementation until 1961.22 According to legislators, the termination policy entailed the withdrawal of federal supervision and support from tribes they deemed self-sufficient. Contradictory to the goals of termination, the tribe’s dependence on social service programs, government insistence and nearby counties increased.23 The Menominee Enterprise Incorporation(MEI) poorly managed the industries on the Menominee reservation, which increased dissatisfaction amongst tribal members. To say the least, the MEI did not operate in the best interest of the tribe and brought about many changes on the reservation. Originally, tribal members practiced communal values and did not impose taxes on tribal members or require them to purchase land. Immediately, MEI charged taxes on the land. People who wanted to build on property now had to pay for it, and it even considered selling portions of Menominee land to outsiders in the Legacy Lake project reserved for people looking to buy vacation homes.24 When state jurisdiction took effect, the tribe realized they would have to incur over 40,000 dollars in renovations to their power plants to meet state regulations and consequently they have to charge high rates for tribal members to use electricity in their homes.25 As a result, the tribe felt it was in their best interest to sell the power plants to the Wisconsin Power and Light Company. When tribal members still could not afford the electric bills, many of them lost this luxury and were relegated to using kerosene lamps in their homes instead. Though they began with over ten million in their tribal treasury, by the third year of termination only 300,000 thousand dollars remained and by the end of termination the tribe operated at a yearly deficit of over 200,000 dollars. 26
The devastating impact of termination happened quickly. The unemployment rate doubled. Many Menominee applied for federal welfare assistance, but were denied services because they owned shares in Menominee industry. In order to qualify for welfare, tribal members had to sell their shares to the Wisconsin government which caused the government to gain over a million dollars in bonds.27 There were no school buildings, buses, hospital facilities or road maintenance.28 To fulfill these duties, the Menominee had to outsource many of these services to a nearby Shawano County. The downside to this arrangement was that the Menominee had no voice or rights in Shawano County politics, thus when racial tensions and unfair practices ensued their expressed grievances were ignored. The lack of health care facilities and proper education, resulted in an increase in diseases.29 In addition, the BIA voted the shares of those they deemed incompetent based on English proficiency or refusal to conform to American ideals. MEI voting trust leaders voted their preference for minors who could not vote. Not to mention, there was little Menominee representation on the voting trust. This caused Menominee leaders to speed into action; as a result, Determination of Rights and Unity for Menominee Shareholders (DRUMS) was born in 1970.
DRUMS, started by Menominee member Ada Deer, was an activist group that championed for Menominee rights and fought to remove termination policies. Deer attended the University of Wisconsin, becoming the first Menominee member to earn a bachelor’s degree. Later in her career, she served as the Secretary of the Interior under the Clinton administration. DRUMS demonstrations were highly effective and eventually garnered local support from Wisconsin governor, Patrick Lucy. In addition, they encouraged the need to establish a financial structure for the tribe. From an activist standpoint, DRUMS planned public protests where they marched 221 miles to their state capitol to show their disapproval of the Legacy Lake project.30 They worked to educate the tribe about the its relationship with MEI and the voting trust. They convinced tribal members to allow DRUMS to serve as proxies and vote their shares in the trust. The goal here was to increase the number of Menominee members on the voting trust. This plan was successful and a special election which resulted in Ada Deer as the head of the voting trust. At this time, the goal of MEI shifted to ending termination. All the while, Ada Deer spoke to legislators about ending termination in Washington, DC. Deer was told that it would take about twenty years for the law to reversed, but luckily, termination ended in 1971 which activated the restoration process.
Once the Menominee Restoration Act was passed in 1973, the tribe began trying to restore their tribal identity and status. The first thing on the agenda was to dismantle the MEI and institute the Menominee Restoration Committee (MRC). There were 45 candidates on the ballot to lead the MRC, and though there was reluctance surrounding choosing a woman, Ada Deer was chosen as the chair. Immediately, the MRC was tasked with creating a constitution and bylaws for the tribe. In addition, they reinstated the tribal roll and restored all the rights and privileges of the tribe and its members. They fought to restore tribal sovereignty when handling legal and criminal issues instead of the state. Tribal members complained of racial prejudice and police brutality from local law enforcement. Tribal concerns toward law enforcement was heightened in February 1976 when Sheriff Fish shot and killed two tribal members, who he claimed they tried to arrest peacefully. This incident fueled tribal members to protest and petition Governor Lucey to suspend Fish and turn tribal jurisdiction back over to the United Sates. The tribe was able to prosecute the way they saw fit within a month. Once the governing documents were created, then ratified and approved in 1976, Deer stepped down as the chair of the MRC. A special election was instituted and by 1979, a nine member legislative body was established with Gordon Dickie Jr as the first chair of the Menominee tribe.
Restoration policies ushered in a resurgence in tribal economy, language and education. The Menominee got to work rebuilding infrastructure on tribal lands which resulted in the creation of an elderly housing facility in 1980, an elementary school in Neopit and a sixth-through-twelfth-grade facility in Keshena and a million-dollar renovation to their tribal clinic. In addition, gaming facilities were introduced causing a 16% decrease to the unemployment rate. The Menominee language and Culture Code was created to revitalize the Menominee language in schools and the College of the Menominee Nation was established in 1993 and accredited in 1998. These efforts demonstrate concerted efforts by tribal members to retain their sovereign status and make sound decisions to establish the longevity of the tribe. Finally, in 1998 the tribe sued the United States government for the damaging effects they incurred as a result of termination policies. The government, under the Clinton administration issued $17 million to the Menominee in reparations.
Despite the growth and positive occurrences, the Menominee endured racial tension from US citizens in neighboring towns. In the 1980s, local fisherman harassed Menominee spear fishermen as local news irresponsibly misreported on Menominee fishing rights. Fisherman created racially inappropriate signs and threw rocks at tribesmen. While the Menominee fished for survival, locals fished for sport yet they were enraged that the tribesmen could spear fish in the off seasons. They feared Menominee would get all of the fish. However, studies showed tribesmen actually brought home less fish than the locals and their practices were strategically planned to mostly catch male fish so that female fish were still able to lay eggs.31 The state of Wisconsin tried to limit the Menominee fishing rights, but the tribe successfully sued referencing the rights established in their treaty. When the state tried to push back that though their treaties did not explicitly grant fishing as one of their rights, the Supreme Court found that it was an implied right as the actual treaty states they their land is to be “held as Indian lands are held,” ultimately leading to a Menominee victory.32 Again in 1995, Menominee won a case enforcing their treaty rights. US District Judge Barbara Crab argued that Menominee treaty rights were given up when they ceded land to government as the treaty read that tribal members “…can hunt and fish on ceded land until ceded land was surveyed and offered for sale by the president.”33The tribe argued that at the time of the treaty, there were no Menominee words to express the terms survey or offer for sale, thus their ancestors understood it to mean that they were allowed to hunt and fish whenever necessary; ultimately, the Menominee won this case as well.
In an effort to reduce racial tensions and ensure that Wisconsin was no longer considered the “Mississippi of the North,” the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction enacted Act 31 which mandates the teaching of history, culture and sovereignty of American Indian tribes in Wisconsin.34 Act 31 has its loopholes, but is another testament of the sovereignty of and strides made by the Menominee tribe to ensure that the rights they were guaranteed are enacted properly. The success of the Menominee tribe’s plight to self-determination is highlighted by their casino, bingo and hotel complex that allowed them to build tribal schools, and even the College of the Menominee Nation and is known as one of the most beautiful forests on earth. Today, tribal members are working to revitalize the Menominee language as it is seen as an extremely endangered language, like many Native languages in the United States.
Ultimately, I want my students to explore the intricacies of Menominee culture and survival because it is a true and little known story of what can happen when people come together to stand against injustices.
Classroom Activities and Implementation
The strategies I will employ during this unit are designed to lead students to thoroughly research and analyze text to determine how the Menominee achieved tribal sovereignty and self-determination. Students will reach this goal by actively engaging in a number of strategies and class activities throughout the curricular unit that are intended to increase student knowledge on the content, empower students and help them achieve mastery of the Common Core State Standards designated for the unit.
Strategy 1: Anticipation Guide
Before delving into our curricular unit on the Menominee tribe, I want to activate students’ background knowledge on Native Americans in general. While I anticipate that students will have limited and generic knowledge on Native Americans in general, I know they will have no knowledge of the Menominee tribe. However, it is still a good practice to poll the class to assess what students already know and build interest in the topic.
In an effort to assess student background knowledge and hook them on the unit of study, I will distribute an anticipation guide. Traditionally anticipation guides are used to uncover a student’s knowledge on a particular topic and fosters great discussion. It helps to set the tone for the particular unit as the statements that students will discuss are related to the content and major concepts of a unit. This works particularly well with controversial topics that will elicit strong opinions and debate within the classroom. Considering that my students are opinionated and get extremely engaged when it comes to debatable topics, this is the best course of action.
In addition, anticipation guides help to set a purpose for reading as students. This is important for my students because often times they dread reading texts, especially if they are lengthy. This activity will increase their interest in our topic and will heighten their desire to read the text so that they can look for information within the text that either affirms or conflicts with their initial responses on the anticipation guide. Lastly, they foster active reading and critical thinking.35
Though there are typically anticipation guides that one can google search, I prefer to create my own for this topic (Appendix B). The statements are intended to be controversial in nature so that students will immediately form a strong opinion, and be willing to share them in the class discussion that will follow the anticipation guide. Students are typically willing to share their thoughts and opinions when activities are opinion based and there is no right or wrong answer. In this case, the anticipation guide includes statements that students will either mark as true or false. While there is a great chance that students have no background knowledge on the Menominee tribe, the goal is to get a general consensus on what knowledge students have about Native Americans in general.
Strategy 2: Annotating and Analyzing Text
Annotating text is a strategy that I live by in my classroom. I notice that when students are actively annotating the text while they read, they better comprehend the text and it allows them to better analyze texts. Annotating text increases student engagement as they are required to mark the text using designated signals. The purpose of annotating the text is to increase student comprehension, engagement and interest of the text. I use annotations in various forms throughout the school year. At times, students are required to only abide by the signals we’ve established for the class. As the year progresses, there may be a focus question, either self or teacher selected, that students aim to answer as they read.
For this unit, we will read multiple texts many of which will be primary sources and informational texts. It is important for students to encounter primary texts like the Menominee Treaties of 1854, newspaper articles that represent the time period and transcripts of interview of tribal members petitioning the government to restore their treaty rights. At the same time, they will encounter secondary text as well to supplement the primary sources, give us a basis to compare and contrast the information and build more knowledge and information regarding the content.
Strategy 3: Interpreting Political Cartoons
Another strategy that I will use during the unit is interpreting and analyzing political cartoons. This is another effort to engage students and get them to think critically. This strategy allows all students to access the content since this includes very few words, yet they have to connect what they are learning about the topic in order to properly analyze the cartoon.
Using the College of the Menominee Nation’s Special Collections, we will access the DRUMS newsletter from that has a political cartoon on its front page. Students will analyze this cartoon independently first. Later students will turn and talk to discuss their findings.
This will require students to critically observe the image to determine the illustrator’s intended purpose and message. Students will begin by writing down what they observe in the image, paying particular attention the image and the words that supplement the image. Then students will reflect and analyze the political cartoon drawing connections to and citing evidence from the text we have read. Lastly, students will discuss their analysis amongst their classmates first before sharing out whole class.
RI 7.1 Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
RI 7.2 Determine two or more central ideas in a text and analyze their development over the course of the text.
RI 7.6 Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author distinguishes his or her position from that of others.
Appendix B: Anticipation Guide
There are no longer any American Indian tribes in existence in the United States today.
There are no American Indian tribes in my state or any of the states near where I live.
American Indians way of life is/was completely different than the way that I live.
American Indians are not considered United States citizens.
All American Indians share the same beliefs, religions and look the same.
I can easily identify an American Indian when I see one.
Annotated Student Resource and Reading Bibliography
Gauthier, Jennifer. "Living Language | The Ways." Living Language | The Ways. Ed. Sheila Regan. Wisconsin Educational Communications Board, n.d. Web. 16 July 2016. We will utilize both the essay and video in the classroom setting. This website offers video and essays on other tribes in Wisconsin, as well as great adaptable resources under the Learning Session on each page. Finn Ryan video producer and director.
"Home." Http://www.menominee.edu/library/SpecColl.htm. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 July 2016. This is a helpful resource to search Special Collection items of the Menominee Nation.
Loew, Patty. Indian Nations of Wisconsin: Histories of Endurance and Renewal. Madison: Wisconsin Historical Society Press, 2001. Chapter 3.
"Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin May 12, 1854 Treaty." The Menominee Tribe of Wisconsin. N.p., 2005. Web. 16 Aug. 2016. Students will annotate text and work in small groups to analyze this primary source.
"Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin May 12, 1856 Treaty." The Menominee Tribe of Wisconsin. N.p., 2005. Web. 16 Aug. 2016. Students will annotate text and work in small groups to analyze this primary source.
Twohey, Megan. "Learning as Lifeline In a Place Where Poverty Rules and Jobs Lack, the College Of Menominee Nation Has Taken Root, Offering Hope and Preserving Tradition ." The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Milwaukee Wisconsin Journal Sentinel, 8 Apr. 2007. Web. 15 July 2016. This article was found in the archives of The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel and can be accessed for a fee.
Wozniak, Maurice D. "Deer Recounts Tribe's Struggle to Retain Identity." The Milwaukee Journal, December 23, 1993. Accessed July 15, 2016. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_multi=MWSB|PKPB&p_product=MSNP&p_theme=msnp&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&s_dispstring=Deer recounts tribe's struggle to retain identity AND date()&p_field_advanced-0=&p_text_advanced-0=(Deer recounts tribe's struggle to retain identity)&xcal_numdocs=20&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&xcal_useweights=no.
Article found in archives of website. There is a fee to access archived articles from the Milwaukee Journal.
- The Invasion of America: How the United States Took Over an Eighth of the World http://invasionofamerica.ehistory.org/#0.
- American FactFinder http://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?src=bkmk.
- Perez, Juan, Jr. "Chicago Public Schools Downgrades Four Years of Inflated Graduation Rates." Chicagotribune.com. October 2, 2015. Accessed July 20, 2016. http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-chicago-school-graduation-rate-change-met-1002-20151001-story.html. Chicago Public Schools graduation rate statistics.
- Bigelow, Bill, and Bob Peterson. Rethinking Columbus: The next 500 Years. Milwaukee, WI: Rethinking Schools, 1998.
- Beck, David. The Struggle for Self-determination: History of the Menominee Indians since 1854. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2005..
- Wilkinson, Charles F., and Biggs Eric R. "The Evolution of the Termination Policy." American Indian Law Review5, no. 1 (1977): 139-84.
- Wilkinson, pg. 143.
- Puisto, Jaakko. ""We Were Very Afraid": The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Politics, Identity, and the Perception of Termination, 1971-2003." American Indian Culture and Research Journal 33, no. 2 (2009): 45-66. Accessed July 17, 2016. doi:10.17953/aicr.33.2.a7722l386451k3gj.
- Wilkinson, pg. 150.
- Medin, Douglas, Norbert Ross, Douglas Cox, and Scott Atran. 2007. "Why Folkbiology Matters: Resource Conflict Despite Shared Goals and Knowledge."Human Ecology35 (3): 315-330. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10745-006-9054-9. http://search.proquest.com/docview/206009605?accountid=15172.
- Medlin, pg. 315.
- Beck, pg. 141.
- Herzberg, Stephen J. "The Menominee Indians: Termination to Restoration." American Indian Law Review6, no. 1 (1978): 143-86.
- Beck, pg. 79.
- Perdue, Theda. Sifters. Cary, US: Oxford University Press (US), 2001. Accessed July 19, 2016. ProQuest ebrary.
- Wilkinson, pgs. 183-184.
- Loew, Patty. Indian Nations of Wisconsin: Histories of Endurance and Renewal. Madison: Wisconsin Historical Society Press, 2001.
- Perdue, pg. 225.
- Beck, pg. 141.
- Wilkinson, pg. 178.
- Beck, pg 152.
- Wilkinson, pgs. 183-184.
- Herzberg, pg. 160.
- Wilkinson, pgs. 183-184.
- Herzberg, pg. 173.
- Perdue, pg. 231.
- Kenneth Philp.Indian Self Rule: First-Hand Accounts of Indian-White Relations from Roosevelt to Reagan.Logan: Utah State University Press, 1995. https://muse.jhu.edu/ (accessed June 27, 2016).
- Loew, pg. 35.
- Loew, Patty and James Thannum. 2011. "After the Storm." American Indian Quarterly35 (2): 161-191,279. http://search.proquest.com/docview/862094580?accountid=15172.
- 2 Hobbs, Charles A. "Indian Hunting and Fishing Rights [collection and Classification of All Legal Authorities on This Subject, including General Common Law Principles]." The George Washignton Law Review 32, no. 3 (March 1964): 504. http://heinonline.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.journals/gwlr32&collection=journals&page=504.
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